The Human Eye Described by an Eye Doctor in Boca Raton Florida


The eye is an organ that specializes in sight or helping an individual to see. The simple proteins and cells in the eye allow the individual to tell day and night (light and darkness) apart. The eye comprises complex assemblies of nerves, filters, light-sensitive tissues, supportive structures, and lenses. Earth Vision Eye Care, explains that humans and other animals have highly-specialized visual systems. Animals gather light through their eyes and use it to achieve complex visual processing. For instance, mammals use a lens and retina to collect light rays and relay that information to the brain for interpretation. In contrast, insects boast compound eyes with several separate lenses for light gathering and a mosaic-like view of objects.

Below are parts of the human eye as well as the functions performed by each part.

The Cornea: The journey of light into the eye starts at the cornea, which is a layer consisting of transparent tissue resting on top of the pupil and iris. It focuses light to help generate the clear image displayed on the retina. It also forms an additional protective layer.

Pupil: This part of the eye seems black because it allows light to pass through without returning. It acts as the passage through which light enters the eye for further processing.

Iris: This is the colored ring surrounding the pupil that contains a sphincter muscle that expands and contracts to control the size of the pupil and make it larger or smaller. It enables the eye to control the amount of light entering the inner parts.

Lens: Once light passes through the pupil, it is focused by the lens for a clearer view. This part of the eye is located immediately behind the pupil and refracts light constantly, just like the artificial lenses found in glasses do. The “adjustable” lens changes the focus based on the distance of the object from the eye.

Retina: The eye is spherical, and the retina lies at the back of it, directly opposite the pupil. With light-sensitive cells, it can tell colors and levels of brightness to assemble images. It converts this information into neural codes of information before relaying to the bran for further processing.

Optic Nerve: It comprises neural fibers bundled together and traveling from the back of the eye to the brain. Its function is to encode the image information collected by the retina to form neural signals to be interpreted by the brain.

The Conjunctiva: This clear, protective membrane on the eye surface is lubricated to enable the eye to function properly. The substances contained in the conjunctiva include a watery solution, mucous, and oils to prevent drying of the eyes and possible surface irritations.

The Sclera: This whitish part of the eye does not ideally collect image data, but instead protects the eyeball.

Vitreous Humor: This is the thick, jelly-like fluid part that covers the eyeball and constantly refracts light. This part is responsible for the round shape assumed by the eye. Any change in the shape of the eye due to lacking vitreous humor may lead to improper focusing of the light and possible vision problems.


The Face of an Exceptional Child

All of us has probably seen that second-grade boy acting like a four-year-old. Or maybe that girl with a disproportionate build, poor posture, narrow eyes, and what seems like an inverted nose. Or maybe that 10-year-old who throws a tantrum like a whining baby, inadvertently hurting himself with pounding fists. This is an all common sight. Children with special needs are everywhere, and they continue to increase in number every day. With so many disabilities and disorders diagnosed, it’s quite hard to imagine how they will be able to live normal lives like other children. What do we know about disability? And how can this knowledge help us in dealing with them?

Disability is used to refer to a spectrum of chronic disorders typically occurring before the age of 22 and lasts for a lifetime. This may include physical, mental, and social impairments. Some are congenital, others are acquired, and may even be genetic. Disabilities that occur during childhood years are referred to as developmental disorders.

Categories of Developmental Disorders. Developmental disorders may be brought about by a number of different factors, and are subdivided into the following subgroups. Neurodevelopmental disabilities are those involving the brain, spinal cord and nervous system, thus affecting motor and cognitive functions, among others. Hearing and visual impairments are also another type of disorders, affecting the child’s sense of hearing, speaking and seeing. This may require assistive devices, materials and strategies for the child to use in order to communicate with others. Disabilities may also include degenerative disorders, wherein children may appear healthy and normal-functioning at birth, while disorders surface later on in life, lagging the child behind the required developmental milestones for his age. These disabilities may be categorized through severity levels, namely, mild, moderate, severe or profound, depending on the amount of support the child needs. Some children are trainable, which means they are best taught skills for daily living, like in vocational training programs. Some children are educable, meaning they are best included in the regular school, given academic and extracurricular work with the help of classroom modifications and accommodations.

Appropriate Professional Services and Support Systems. Children with disabilities have discrepancies in their day-to-day functioning. For example, they may have difficulty getting along with peers, sustaining normal conversation, or taking care of their own needs. It is vital, therefore, that these children receive support and training from various professionals to ensure that they get the most out of what they are able to do. Developmental pediatricians are important for a medical diagnosis. This will set the child in line to the appropriate services he needs, like occupational, physical or speech therapy. Some may enroll in special education or vocational training programs. There are also psychotherapy and counselling services for children with emotional disorders.

In modern times, the stigma of children with disabilities being “abnormal” or “retarded” has gradually vanished. Due to education and awareness of these children, it is now easier to imagine that despite their disabilities, they too, are just like all children are.

How To Prevent Yard Work Related Injuries

Your lawn and yard look beautiful and attractive if taken good care of it. However, mowing your lawn and working in your yard, if not careful, can cause a number of injuries or even death. It is advisable to be very careful while working on your yard or mowing lawn. You may want to spend some time mowing and raking your garden to improve your home’s curb appeal, but you should note that doing so might get you seriously injured or even killed if you are not very careful with your tools and the location. Thousands find themselves in the emergency room and occasionally the morgue due to serious yard work-related injuries.

Below are injuries that are common while working in the backyard or mowing your lawn.  For a more detailed article on safety precautions to take while lawn mowing, you can click this link right here.

1. Chainsaw injuries

Chainsaws are very powerful cutting tools that require much attention and skills to handle. They are very useful when trimming large tree branches to make the yard look more appealing. However, this terror tool is behind more than 30, 000 emergency room cases annually. In fact, doctors record a higher number of chainsaw-related injuries following natural disasters like hurricanes and thunderstorms than during other seasons. Many homeowners often take out their chainsaws to cut fallen trees and their branches after natural disasters. Be careful not to cut your toes and limbs with a chainsaw while working beautifying the yard.

2. Bumblebee and insect bite

In your desire to make your garden look attractive, you may find yourself crossing the path of rogue bumblebees. The bushes and shrubs in your backyard can be home to deadly bees and wasps. Bee stings and insect bites can be fatal, as 100 or more Americans die annually due to such causes. Others are allergic to insect bites, and this makes the backyard a dangerous place to be.

3. A shot to the face by a lawnmower

The lawnmower also poses a danger to users. Its blades can launch a rock or stick straight to your face. The fast-rotating blades can also shoot tiny objects in the eye, causing gruesome injuries and even blindness. Many people have suffered fractured limbs due to objects shot from the ground by the rotating blades. These can also injure bystanders. So next time you are working on your lawn, make sure there are no people around. Also, wear safety goggles to protect against flying objects.

4. Ladder falls

A day at the yard trimming the hedges can turn tragic if you fall off your ladder. You can break your back, neck, and limbs from a ladder fall, depending on how high you are and where you land. America records about 220,000 ladder-related injuries each year.

5. Electrocution

Your desire to take your yard beautification program a notch higher can get you electrocuted. If you decide to do any planting, ensure it is far from a power line. In fact, you can give your utility company a call to help you avoid locations with power lines. People have been sent to their early graves after making contact with power lines while planting trees in their yards.

Treatment Options for Dry Eye Disease

Have you ever felt dryness or grittiness in your eyes? Have you experienced waking up with eyelids sticking together? Is your vision getting blurred but improves when you blink? If your answer is yes, you might be suffering from dry eye disease.

This chronic condition, also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca, occurs when the eyes do not produce and maintain enough tears to keep its surface lubricated.

As a result, your eyes might experience mild to severe dryness, discomfort, pain, blurred vision and even infections. There are also cases of scarring and corneal ulcers if not handled promptly.

Follow-up care may be required on a regular basis depending on how severe the symptoms seem.

While supplemental lubrication is often considered sufficient treatment for mild aqueous-deficient DED, it is essential to treat any existing concomitant lid disease. The primary objective is to boost the secretion of the tear layer’s aqueous component and goblet cell density while reducing inflammatory tear cytokines.

Below are some treatment options available for patients with dry eye disease.

  1. Artificial Tears

These are very effective against dry eyes caused by mild cases, such as prolonged computer use or reading for an extended period.

Using eye drops frequently can help manage the disease. There is a wide range of eye drops to choose from, and they are often available without a doctor’s prescription.

While you can use artificial tears as often as needed, it is best to try a few brands until you find what works best for you.

Low viscosity artificial tears provide faster relief because they are light and produce little to no blurring.

If you are using it more than six times a day, it is advisable to choose preservative-free tears as chemicals may irritate your eyes over time.

  1. Restasis

Unlike over-the-counter artificial tears, these are only available via a prescription. The eye doctor may advise that you use Restasis (Allergan), which works by doing more than simple eye lubrication.

The eye drop contains an agent that could help minimize inflammation related to dry eye syndrome. Also, it helps in the production of sufficient natural tears to help moisturize the eyes.

  1. Eye inserts

They work like artificial tears. They are most effective against moderate to severe cases of dry eyes, especially where artificial tears have failed to provide relief.

The insert resembles a grain of rice, but clearer. The hydroxypropyl cellulose insert is placed between the eyeball and the lower eyelid once a day.

The Lacrisert dissolves slowly over time and releases a substance found in eye drops for eye lubrication.

  1. Tear-stimulating Drugs

Dry eye disease can also be managed using cholinergic, which are tear-secreting drugs. These drugs enhance tear production to provide relief.

Patients can use these drugs as eye drops, pills or even gel. However, it is associated with side effects, such as sweating.

  1. Autologous Blood Serum Drops

A patient’s blood can be used to make drops for severe dry eyes that seem to show no response to other treatments. A sample of the patient’s blood is extracted and processed to get rid of the red blood cells before a salt solution is added to make eye drops.

Autologous serum drops reportedly possess many of the same biological nutrients found in natural tears, making it a better substitute.

In fact, a recent study reveals that patients who use this method showed improvement in symptoms after two weeks.

Dry eye syndrome can be both chronic and progressive. While some forms of this syndrome may not be entirely curable, they can be easily managed with early detection and appropriate treatment.

Note that medications vary based on the severity of symptoms. Therefore, always consult your eye doctor for the best treatment option.